Alcohol potentiates the sedating effects of certain


, and is one of the most common strong psychoactives used by humans.It has a long history of use and its intoxicating effects are well-studied and documented. Common drugs are those which are well known and widely used among the drug community.This doesn't necessarily mean they are safe, but it usually comes with a longer relative history of use in humans with which to establish a safety profile.It is likely that many Americans will use both prescription medications and alcohol, creating the potential for drug? It is, therefore, advisable for pharmacists to review medications that may interact with ethanol to enhance patient counseling and to avoid untoward effects.Mechanisms of interaction may involve ethanol metabolism.Once ingested, a small percentage of ethanol is metabolized in the stomach to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH).The majority of ethanol is metabolized in the liver by ADH and the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2E1.



Pain Medications/Muscle Relaxants The concomitant use of ethanol and narcotics causes additive depression of the central nervous system (CNS), with impairment of speech, sedation, and lethargy.In the case of propoxyphene, bioavailability is increased when it is used with ethanol, likely due to reduced first-pass metabolism.Nonnarcotic pain relievers, such as tramadol, also may produce additive CNS depression.The interaction of acetaminophen with ethanol is likely due to the induction of CYP2E1 in chronic alcohol users.